Jack and Jill Went Up the Hill, but Jill Won Both Ways: The True Story about Differential Academic Achievement

Rayya G. Younes, Robert M. Capraro, Mary M. Capraro, Roslinda Rosli, Yujin Lee, Katherine Vela, Danielle Bevan


This longitudinal study was designed to examine how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) project-based learning (PBL) affected the success of high school women in comparison with high school men in mathematics and science, with English performance as a control. We analysed the four-year performance, course-taking, and retention of high school students (n = 186) in these three subjects in a school where STEM PBL was enacted. Students’ Texas state-mandated high-stakes test scores were collected. A repeated measures MANOVA was used for analysing changes in performance after infusing STEM PBL activities into their classes. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant change in scores for both men and women in mathematics and science; however, the attrition for women was much less than for men. We included implications for how to escalate women's performance and retention in STEM-based areas.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30722/IJISME.28.04.004